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Solid fuel and pyrolysis only
Even the most perfect home heating system is meaningless without a quality heating element. The" heart " of the heating system is the boiler. But what kind of boiler you choose for your home is another question.
Manufacturers of boiler equipment offer various boilers with options of the heating the coolant: from electric heating to burning various types of fuel.
Let's consider various options of modern heating boilers for installing a heating system at home.
Gas boiler. Gas equipment has a number of advantages, such as wide distribution of fuel, silent gas burning, good heat transfer. Also, gas boilers have a number of disadvantages: the installation of gas equipment at home can only be trusted by professionals( because it is a flammable fuel), constantly rising gas prices.
Electric boilers also considerably comfortable. They are easy to manage, compact, and do not require space for fuel storage, as well as chimney systems. Electric heating is completely safe for the environment. But electric boilers also have their disadvantages. Firstly, it is the high cost of the resource. Secondly, there is not electricity everywhere, and there are frequent power outages that can negatively affect the equipment. In short, installing an electric boiler will not be cheap and is not suitable for all regions.
Liquid fuel boilers are only suitable for houses, since they are not adapted for installation in apartments. Liquid fuel for such boilers is diesel. It is relatively expensive, has a characteristic odor. This boiler is usually placed in a separate room. Fuel consumption is sufficiently large even for a small space, so liquid fuel boilers are quite specific heating equipment.
Finally, solid fuel boilers. Solid fuel boilers are also not intended for installation in apartments. Nevertheless, such a boiler can be a solution for many problems. So, it works without electricity connection, on the most affordable type of fuel in our country – firewood. The efficiency of modern solid fuel pyrolysis boilers reaches 85%. These boilers have thermoregulators and reliable safety systems. The time from one tab to another can take up to 12 hours.
Home heating based on a solid fuel boiler is environmentally safe, simple and reliable.
The main difference between boilers with pyrolysis fuel combustion is that in solid fuel boilers, not only the wood is burned, but also the wood gas released from them under the influence of high pressure and temperature. There is no soot while this combustion, and the amount of ash is minimal. In boilers with such combustion, wood gas, which appears in the fuel tank with the help of high temperature, passes through a special injector and burns with a flame of yellow or almost pure white color.
The operation of a solid fuel boiler is based on the principle of pyrolysis combustion of fuel, the essence of which is the following: under the conditions of lack of oxygen and under the influence of high temperature, dry firewood decomposes into a volatile part— pyrolysis gas and a solid residue - coke (charcoal).
Pyrolysis of wood occurs at a temperature of 200-800°C. This is an exothermic process, that is, it goes with the release of heat and due to this, the heating and drying of wood in the boiler get better and the air entering the combustion zone is heated.
The combination of oxygen with the released wood gas at high temperatures causes the combustion of this gas, which is later used to generate heat energy. At the same time, we note that the pyrolysis gas interacts with active carbon during the combustion process, as a result the flue gases at the exit from the boiler practically do not contain harmful impurities, mostly, it is mix of water vapor and carbon dioxide. A solid-fuel pyrolysis boiler will emit up CO2 into the environment three times less than an ordinary wood-fired boiler, and especially a coal-fired boiler.
The main advantages of solid fuel boilers of long-term combustion are high efficiency (efficiency up to 85%) and the ability to control power (usually in the range from 30 to 100%).
The main difference between boilers with pyrolysis fuel combustion is that solid fuel boilers burn not only the wood, but also wood gas, released from the wood under the influence of high pressure and temperature. There is no soot during this combustion, and the amount of ash is minimal.
Also, the advantages are:
A controlled process of combustion (regulated by the air supply) - up to 12 hours of burning with a single fuel tab (for an ordinary solid fuel boiler with wood for about 2-3 hours).
Complete fuel combustion. This means that the efficiency of burning is guaranteed, it is necessary to clean the chimney and remove the ash from the heating boiler less often.
Two-stage combustion reduces the excess of the air in the exhaust gases (increasing efficiency).
The process of the combustion of pyrolysis gases can be easily controlled, which makes the operation of a solid fuel boiler to be automated, approximately the same as the operation of gas or liquid fuel boilers.
Reducing emissions of harmful gases into the environment (high temperature in the upper chamber of the boiler splits carbon monoxide CO).
The use of gas-generating boilers for long-term combustion encourages the rejection of the use of not dried fuel, which increases the efficiency of management.
The possibility of burning large firewood of a big dimeter in the boiler. As a consequences solid fuel boilers are 3-4 times more cost-effective than "traditional" direct-fired boilers.
Any type of wood (hardwood) can be used as fuel for these boilers, under condition that its humidity is within acceptable limits. A rare (no more than once every 6-10 hours) fuel tab during the day will ensure the operation of the boiler, while the efficiency, in comparison with ordinary solid fuel boilers of direct combustion is much higher.
The point is about the pyrolysis gas combustion temperature, which is much higher than the wood burning temperature. Based on the above, it becomes clear that the use of solid-fuel gas-generating heating boilers of long-term combustion is a more environmentally friendly method of heating, while a large amount of heat generated during the combustion of fuel makes such heating boilers also economically profitable.
Lavoro Eco solid fuel pyrolysis boilers are almost omnivorous. You can heat them with different types of fuel. Nevertheless, each type of solid fuel for pyrolysis boilers has its own properties, so the question - what to heat the boiler is important.
Firewood for solid fuel boilers must be necessarily dry, this will depend on the heat output of the boiler.
When laying logs in the furnace, pay attention to the fact that they should be placed tightly together, at the top there should be a free space of at least 200 mm. The first tab is about half a portion of firewood, the rest, depending on the fuel tank, shall be discharged as it burns through. Firewood burns unevenly – they must be carefully laid out on the surface of the furnace, without cooling the boiler.
Firewood can not be automated, but as a plus - it is an eco-friendly way to heat any premises without damaging the environment.
Peat as well as firewood can be used to heat almost all solid fuel boilers. When choosing peat as a type of fuel, you must adhere to certain rules.
The fuel tank must be cleared from ash, and the the ash-pit door must be closed. A layer of peat is better to spread on the grate,then put a little wood on top for flaming up, cover with another layer of peat. After opening the flue valve, you can start flaming up. All the time of boiler’s operation, it is necessary to make sure that the peat lies in a uniform layer, this will ensure optimal heat output.
When choosing coal as a fuel for the boiler, carefully read the instructions: whether this type of fuel is suitable for your boiler. If there are no problems, we learn.
To produce the best level of heat,coal fuel will require a special fuel tank-a shaft with vertical walls and grate. The fuel tank should be high, from the roof to the grate must be at least 50 cm.The ash-pit and furnace doors are recommended to do cast iron, strictly sealed, the optimal distance between them to withstand about 21 cm. When firing the furnace with coal you should remember, that a new batch should be thrown only when the first one flared up confidently, each time you need to clothe the ash-pit door, and also to prevent the burning of coal to the grate, maintaining a uniform layer.
It is worth to remember that coal of some brands require wetting according to the instructions. And only anthracite does not require wetting, if only to reduce the release of dust.
For optimal combustion, the coal should be pricked with pieces of 30-50cm in size.
Briquettes are currently the optimal means for firing solid fuel boilers. Briquettes can be coal or peat.
Thus, the use of briquettes gives you the following advantages:
high heating value;
burning of the briquette without any residue;
smooth combustion process: there is no need to correct the layers, interfere with the burning process;
the density of the burning layer, with a small amount of flame – as a result, the minimum amount of smoke;
convenience of packing briquettes: for any size of the fuel tank.
The boiler is fired until the briquettes are completely burned. If unburned briquettes are found during cleaning, they are taken out and used again.
Whatever type of solid fuel you choose for yourself, follow the instructions, and your boiler will serve you faithfully, performing its purpose well.
Solid-fuel pyrolysis boilers of long-term combustion work much more economically than any solid-fuel boilers with direct burning of firewood.
No special adjustment is required for the operation of gas-generating heating boilers of long-term combustion. The temperature of the water (coolant) is stable - ±3°C, as long as there is fuel in the furnace (at least 10% of the full load).
The Lavoro boiler quickly reaches an effective operating mode - about 30-60 minutes (at the exit, the water temperature is +60 - +90°C), both when connected to heating systems with forced circulation and when connected to heating systems with natural circulation.
Autonomy. Electronic independence. The Lavoro water-heating boiler does not have any fans in the design, etc. While connecting to the heating system with upper bottling, natural circulation of pumps is not required, the Lavoro gas-generating boiler of long-term combustion creates sufficient pressure for more efficient circulation itself.
No special heating system is required for operation of a solid fuel boiler of long-term combustion.
The Lavoro boiler of long-term combustion does not need flues with a pipe thickness of more than 1 mm made of corrosion-resistant and heat-resistant steel (stainless steel), since the temperature of the waste gases does not exceed 140-150°C, when pyrolysis boilers are used properly;
The solid fuel water-heating boiler does not need frequent removal of combustion waste, the fuel burns completely, leaving almost no ash. The absence of ash after combustion of fuel and light transparent smoke at the exit from the chimney indicates that the combustion of fuel is very, very effective.
With the advent of electricity, there were air heaters that work from the power. Over time, liquid fuel (gasoline, oil, and diesel fuel) heaters began to gain popularity. However, despite the level of progress and the variety of options, various solid-fuel furnaces are still the most familiar and affordable in our country.
For a long time the Russian furnace has been the best center of the air heating system and the prototype of modern air heating units.
However, the principle of solid fuel combustion was and remains the same: fuel and oxygen are burned in the furnace, and smoke escapes through the pipe.
Now there is an improved version of this heater - pyrolysis furnace "LavoroEco".
It is the pyrolysis furnace that is based on the principle of pyrolysis combustion of fuel. Pyrolysis of wood is a process of decomposition at high temperature without air access with the generation of gas and ash.
In a pyrolysis furnace, firewood is burned without air access, and the gas released in the process enters the pyrolysis chamber, where it burns, mixing with oxygen. It is this combustion that provides additional heat for heating the metal structure of the furnace.
Solid-fuel pyrolysis furnace, in comparison with usual furnaces, is much more complex in structure.
Constructed under the principle of pyrolysis combustion, these furnaces can significantly save solid fuel, since the time from tab to tab increases to 8-10 hours.
Therefore, pyrolysis furnaces can become an excellent basis for a home air heating system.
Firstly, you do not need to create a system of pipes and batteries, because the coolant is air. Secondly, such a heating system is not threatened with defrosting.
Using such furnaces allows you to create both Central and local air heating systems. Thus, pyrolysis furnaces can make an excellent competition with other types of heating units.
Pyrolysis solid fuel boilers and heating guns of long-term combustion are based on the principle of pyrolysis - thermal decomposition of wood when it is heated without air access. The main visible difference in comparison with classic boilers and guns on solid fuel is that the fuel does not burn with an open flame, but smolders evenly. As a result, pyrolysis gas is released, which reacts chemically with oxygen, mixing with it in the pyrolysis chamber. Heat energy released as a result of a chemical reaction is used to heat a coolant - water or a special non-freezing liquid for heating systems.
In the pyrolysis boiler "Lavoro eco" there is no direct combustion of fuel, so the furnace has a small size, which ultimately affects the size of the boiler itself - they are much smaller than ordinary solid fuel boilers.
Boilers "Lavoro eco" work several times more economical than any gas-generating boilers, not to mention the direct combustion boilers. Fuel economy is 6-10 times compared to direct-burning boilers!
Boilers work efficiently with a single fuel tab from 8 hours to 21 hours. Efficiency depends on how well the heating system, flues, and fuel characteristics are made.
Lavoro eco boilers do not require constant adjustment of operation. The temperature of the coolant (water) is stable: +/-3°C, as long as there is fuel in the furnace (at least 10% of the maximum load).
Lavoro eco boilers are autonomous and non-volatile. Not equipped with fans. When connecting to the heating system of natural circulation with upper bottling, no pumps are required, the boilers create sufficient pressure for the most efficient operation themselves.
100% maintainability. Direct access to any assemblies of the boiler.
It is not a secret that modern society strives to save time, money, and resources. When building a private home, we are increasingly asking the question: how to make it eco-friendly, reliable, easy to use, equipped with economical systems of heat and light.
It turns out that there is a solution. The water heating system can be non-volatile – with natural circulation of the coolant.
Nobody’s canceled the physical properties of water yet: the water becomes lighter, heating up in the heating boiler, rises up the main riser, and then passes through the distribution pipelines through the risers to the radiators. Giving away some of the heat, the water, as a coolant, becomes heavier again and goes down the pipes reverse wiring down into the boiler, thereby displacing the heated water to the top. It turns out that the water moves through the pipes under the influence of hydrostatic pressure, which occurs due to the different density of the heated and cooled liquid. The circulation pressure also depends on the difference between the temperatures of the heated water and the already cooled water. The strength of natural circulation in the heating system will also depend on the height of the heating device above the boiler: the higher the heating device is, the greater the circulation pressure will be.
In addition, the amount of heat, that radiators give to the space, complies with the amount of water and its temperature. The amount of water passing through the pipeline to the radiator, in turn, depends on the circulation pressure. The diameter of the pipe is selected based on what pressure will be in the pipe: the greater it is, the smaller the pipe can be. There are two types of devices for this type of system: with the upper wiring and with the lower wiring.
In conclusion, we will note all the pros and cons of a water heating system with natural circulation.
Among the advantages of such a heating system:
easy installation and commissioning;
economical and easy to use system;
there is no need to install additional equipment: a circulation pump is not required, so the system becomes quieter;
the heating system with natural circulation is durable – with proper operation, its service life without major repairs can be up to 40 years;
self-regulation of the system.
Disadvantages include the following:
turning on the system takes some time;
the need to use large diameter pipes increases the cost of installing the system;
there is a risk of "freezing" of the system in the cold season.
Firstly, many people still receive bills from public utilities, which are calculated at the so-called "average annual rate", secondly, in the summer, many apartments and houses do not have hot water and, despite the hot weather, it is inconvenient, and what to say about suburban private homes and cottages.
And the topical question "how and what to heat a private house?" It makes many people search for various information in specialized magazines or the Internet on forums and sites.
In order to provide yourself and your family with hot water and reliable, comfortable and affordable heat, you need to take the issue of heating very seriously.
If you meet all the necessary requirements, the heating system in the house will function for a long time and provide you with heat at minimal cost.
You can expect more from heating, than just heating the space, namely comfortable heat with maintaining the desired air temperature.
You will have to overcome many difficulties and worries before your dream home will be ready.
Lavoro eco's concern is to make this path the easiest and shortest, because a modern cottage is unthinkable without a heating and hot water supply system.
A heat generator (heating boiler, heating furnace) that generates the heat we need.
Pipes for water circulation (coolant) that delivers heat from the boiler through the heating system.
Directly space heating system, usually consisting of radiators. It is also possible to use a different type of heating system – "heated flooors". Both heating systems transmit the heat generated by the boiler to the air in the room.
The main thing to remember: the boiler room and heating system must be thought out in detail at the design stage of a private home. With centimeter-level accuracy you need to mark the places for radiators and pipe channels, specify the number of pipes and fittings, calculate the power of the boiler and water heater and select models that are suitable for the calculated data.
The approximate capacity of the boiler is determined by the following ratio:
1kW of boiler capacity per 10 m2 of heated area.
This means that at the initial stage of choosing a heating boiler, you can decide on the model that suits You.